Added: Fortunato Thurber - Date: 29.10.2021 06:54 - Views: 43467 - Clicks: 8455
Ancient Sparta was the home of the Spartan warriors, famed for their fearless spirit and resolute self-discipline. Spartan society was unique in ancient Greece. It was isolated and inspired by war and represented a paradox of equality and enslavement. Nestled at the foot of the Taygetus mountain range in the southern Peloponnesian region of Greece, known as Laconia, is the town of Sparta. This town, now a concrete jungle of s apartment and office blocks, hides an illustrious past.
Over years ago, Sparta was home to the fearless Spartan warriors who for a time represented the most powerful people in ancient Greece. However, this dominant ancient town grew from humble origins. It developed gradually from a small settlement consisting of just five villages situated along the banks of the River Eurotas. In keeping with its cultural values, the town remained small and unimposing throughout the Classical period, favoring simple wooden structures over the sophisticated marble architecture of Athens. Spartan artifacts dating to the 7 th century BC and earlier show great skill and creativity, particularly in examples of bronze work.
However, from the late 7 th century Spartan society underwent dramatic changes. A new ethos was introduced which encouraged equality among citizens and an unwavering loyalty to the state. This inward focus meant Men of sparta Sparta soon became an isolated city-state, which rejected imported luxuries.
The mountains surrounding Laconia facilitated this isolation and enabled the city to cut itself off from the rest of Greece. One of the many consequences of this separation was that trade routes were shut down and imported goods gradually ceased. With no external creative influence, the quality of Spartan craftsmanship suffered greatly and, arguably, never fully recovered.
Spartans believed that these social changes were introduced by a law-maker named Lycurgus. Lycurgus is a mysterious figure and no definitive details about Men of sparta are known. Many historians surmise that there was a leader who implemented radical reforms at some point in the 7 th century BC and that he gradually developed into a figure of legend. A system of government developed which consisted of two kings, five leading magistrates, known as ephorsa council of 30 elders, known as the gerousiaand an assembly of male citizens, known as the ecclesia.
This system was deed to promote fairness and decrease the possibility of one man gaining a position of absolute power.
Sparta was unique in ancient Greece for being a society that enslaved fellow Greeks, mostly from the neighboring region of Messenia. These people were known as helots and their mass enslavement was crucial to both the success and eventual failure of Spartan society.
After 17 long years, Sparta was finally victorious and soon made the entire population of Messenia into state-owned slaves or helots. The helots were primarily tasked with working the land and providing produce for Spartan citizens. This, in turn, freed up time for male citizens to train in the art of war. One major disadvantage of this mass enslavement was that the population of Sparta became heavily disproportionate, with helots outing citizens by Fear of a helot rebellion quickly grew and so a policy of brutality was implemented in order to keep the slave population in check.
At the start of each year, war would be declared on the helots Men of sparta they could be legally hunted and killed by citizens for a set period. However, it is also worth noting that, unlike slaves elsewhere in ancient Greece, helots were allowed to marry and form family units.
They were also allowed to keep a proportion of their produce and worship the gods. Women in ancient Sparta had a far greater level of independence than women in any other Greek city-state. This may seem strange at first for such a conservative and inward-looking society. But female independence was built on the Men of sparta that freedom led to good physical and mental health and this, in turn, led to healthy women bearing healthy children.
As a result, girls were brought up to be physically strong contributors to society. Plutarch tells us that girls were taught to run, wrestle, and throw the javelin as well as to dance and play music. Apparently, women even exercised naked, like the men. Girls were also taught basic literacy and numeracy skills in order to manage their households efficiently while the men were away at war.
Spartan women married later in life than other Greek women because they were allowed to wait until they were physically and emotionally ready. Once married, their main purpose in life was to produce children. Adultery was also encouraged as a way of increasing the citizen population. Women in Sparta were raised to have confidence and use their voice. They were encouraged to taunt men from a young age and Men of sparta their virility.
This was believed to have the effect of increasing ambition and mental strength in men. Other Greeks were very critical of Spartan women and believed them to be promiscuous and dangerous. The large of helot slaves in Sparta greatly increased the anxious need for military strength within the state. As a result, Sparta developed into a society which revolved almost entirely around war.
The education system in Sparta, known as the agogeprepared boys for war from a young age. At the age of seven, boys left home and went to live in army barracks under the supervision of eirensyoung Spartan men who had ly excelled at the agoge. The boys spent their time building their physical and mental strength through a series of dangerous training exercises.
Only basic reading and writing were taught since it was believed that all Men of sparta subjects would distract the boys from their obedience to the state. The final stage of education was reserved for the very best young fighters who entered into the mysterious krypteia. We know little about the details of daily life in the krypteiabut it can be best described as a type of secret task force whose aim was to hunt down and kill particularly strong and able helots.
Once fully trained, these young men became the elite force within an army which remained undefeated for centuries. This can be seen most clearly in their battle formation — the phalanx. The phalanx was a rectangular formation, which lined up the men and their weapons so closely that it was impossible for the enemy to penetrate their lines.
Spartan military equipment was simple but effective. Each soldier, known as a hoplite, carried a shield, a spear, and a sword. These were shorter swords than other Greek examples since the Spartans favored close hand-to-hand combat. The hoplites wore a simple woolen cloak, dyed red to hide any bloodstains. Interestingly, they also wore their hair long to give them a larger, and therefore more frightening, stature from a distance. The Spartans were famously relentless in battle. If an enemy force began to retreat, the Spartans would pursue them until they had been captured and killed.
To surrender in battle was a fate worse than death for Spartan soldiers. At the beginning of the 5 th century BC, war broke out between Persia and Greece. The Greek city-states came together as one to repel a mass invasion led by King Darius of Persia. However, isolationist Sparta was initially reluctant to play a part in the hostilities and was conspicuously absent from the Battle of Marathon in BC, which saw the Greeks notably defeat the more numerous Persians.
The vast Persian army was soon marching its way southwards through Greece. But along the way the Persians came to the remote and narrow mountain pass at Thermopylae. It was here that the Spartans, led by King Leonidasplayed arguably their most famous role. The Greek allies, now ed by Sparta, prepared Men of sparta well-timed attack and killed many thousands of Persians in the first two days of the battle. However, disaster struck when the Greeks were betrayed by a local who showed the Persians another route through the pass. Once the Greeks discovered the betrayal, Leonidas dismissed the majority of the Greek troops and retained only his elite force of Spartan hoplites.
Amazingly, these men managed to keep the Persian force at bay for two whole days, before succumbing to their fate. Even though the battle ended in defeat for the Greeks, the incredible bravery shown by the Spartans provided a huge boost in morale for the Greek allies.
Less than a month later the Persians were defeated at the battle of Salamis and Xerxes retreated to his palace at Persepolis. Less than 50 years after this historic victory, relations had soured between the former allies, Sparta and Athens. Sparta, xenophobic at the best of times, feared the growing Athenian empire, while Athens grew increasingly suspicious of Spartan military Men of sparta.
In BC, hostilities between the two broke into war, known today as the Peloponnesian War. The long conflict split Greece in two, with Sparta and her allies, the Peloponnesian Leagueon one side and Athens and her allies, the Delian Leagueon the other. Many years of stalemate followed. Athens and her superior fleet of ships gained victories at sea while Sparta and her fearless hoplites gained victories on land.
Much of what we know of these years comes from the by the Athenian historian and former army general, Thucydides. However, his Athenian heritage means that we must read many of the details he provides with caution. In the latter years of the 5 th century, Sparta sought the help of her former enemy, Persia. Together they laid siege to the city of Athens. With Athens defeated, Sparta became the leader of a vast empire, a position to which she was hugely ill-suited. Her many years of isolation meant that this sudden interaction with outside influences and cultures had a devastating effect.
Gradually Spartan society moved away from its austere life of self-discipline and towards the luxuries of the outside world.
At the same time, the city of Thebes was growing in military might and engaged in battle with the Spartans in order to seize control of the Peloponnese. Within a few short years, without the workforce of slaves supporting the Spartan system, the structure of society and its military excellence crumbled away. Ancient Sparta was a society of contrasts, one in which the qualities of loyalty and equality among the few were heavily dependent on the enslavement of the many.
The legacy of Sparta and her impact on Western civilization is perhaps less obvious than that of Athens. After all, it is Athenian culture, its democratic values, philosophy, art, and literature which have so closely shaped the Western world as it is today. She is a specialist in the field of Classics, Men of sparta which she has either studied or worked for over twenty years. She holds a B. She has also worked as a teacher of Classics in a leading independent school in London. Her particular areas of interest are Latin language and literature as well as Roman art and epigraphy.
Sparta: Home To The Fearless Spartans Ancient Sparta was the home of the Spartan warriors, famed for their fearless spirit and resolute self-discipline. Are you enjoying this article? up to our Free Weekly Newsletter. Please check your inbox to activate your subscription Thank you! by Laura Hayward. Popular Articles in Art.Men of sparta
email: [email protected] - phone:(627) 521-8659 x 7735